Our Research

To request a copy of one of our research papers please contact us or fill out the form to the right. 

The role of unconscious bias in clinical decision making

People Involved: Dr. Melissa Wheeler, Prof. Robert Wood

Research Partners: Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Educating for Equity


This project explores medical students’ clinical decision making and the role of unconscious bias on health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients, with the aim of developing equity training programs at the tertiary level.

Organisational use of the Diversity Scan

People Involved: Dr. Victor Sojo, Prof. Robert Wood


Development, validation and use of a new tool to measure the risk and protective factors for workers’ fit, functioning and growth in organisational contexts. This tool has a particular emphasis on factors associated with diversity management.

Gender evaluation bias and backlash.

People Involved: Anna Genat, Prof. Robert Wood, Dr.Victor Sojo


This is a meta-analytic study of bias in the evaluation of women in general and the reactions towards counter-stereotypical women in work contexts.

Personality frame of reference and performance.

Prof. Robert Wood, Dr. Victor Sojo

This is an empirical study of the use of self and other personality assessments of the BIG 5 under different frames of reference to predict the performance of managers in the corporate sector.

Quotas and target for women in leadership.

People Involved: Prof. Robert Wood, Dr. Victor Sojo

This is a systematic literature review of the evidence around the implementation and impact of quotas and targets to increase the representation of women in leadership positions.

Social class threat perceptions, social class essentialism and performance management.

People Involved: Dr. Victor Sojo, Michelle Stratemeyer, Rebecca Chau, Prof. Robert Wood

This project comprises a series of experimental studies to evaluate the mediating role of social class essentialism in the relationship between social class threat perceptions and discriminatory performance management practices against minority groups.

Briefing Note - Resilience: Women’s Fit, Functioning and Growth at Work: Indicators and Predictors

Date: Aug 05, 2014 (Originally published: Jul 01, 2012)

Author/s: Dr. Victor Sojo , Professor Robert Wood

Research Fields: Diversity & Inclusion

The briefing note for Resilience: Women’s Fit, Functioning and Growth at Work: Indicators and Predictors

This study was one of the four core programs undertaken as part of the Gender Equality Project and was published in July 2012. It was completed while the CEL was located at Melbourne Business School, and as such some of the periphery information regarding the CEL (such as contact details) may have since changed.

Ethical Leadership Framework

Date: Sep 08, 2014 (Originally published: Nov 01, 2009)

Author/s: Professor Robert Wood

Research Fields: Ethical Leadership

Ethical leadership requires more than values. Values such as care, justice, integrity and respect are the raw material of ethical leadership, but they require a production process to convert them into effective actions in complex and dynamic situations.

We desperately need outstandingly able and well-placed people – the people who shape our society – to be ethical and to use their influence wisely and well. Now, more than ever, our society – our world – has an urgent need for ethical leadership. There is an increasing gap between the wealthy and those in poverty. Problems of crime, drugs and homelessness persist, despite government efforts. Environmental challenges seem too complex for many to understand; indigenous issues and political problems in near neighbours seem intractable.

Evaluation Bias and Backlash: Dimensions, Predictors and Implications for Organisations

Date: Aug 05, 2014 (Originally published: Nov 01, 2012)

Author/s: Anna Genat , Professor Robert Wood , Dr. Victor Sojo

Research Fields: Diversity & Inclusion

Research Topics: Backlash , Evaluation Bias , Gender Equality , Unconscious Bias

A meta-analysis of 117 studies that provide rigorous experimental comparisons of men and women who are matched on all dimensions except gender or the particular personal factor being studied which found that women who aspire to leadership and other male dominated occupations carry a heavy and hidden handicap due to unconscious bias.

This study was one of the four core programs undertaken as part of the Gender Equality Project and was published in July 2012. It was completed while the CEL was located at Melbourne Business School, and as such some of the periphery information regarding the CEL (such as contact details) may have since changed.

Building a Business Case for Gender Diversity

Date: Jul 21, 2014 (Originally published: Apr 01, 2013)

Author/s: Professor Robert Wood

Research Fields: Diversity & Inclusion

Having more women on boards, in senior management and across organisations makes good business sense.
A collection of arguments and evidence from globally recognised and respected sources supporting why having more women in boards, senior management and in general benefits organisations.

Harmful Workplace Experiences and Women’s Occupational Well-being: A Meta-Analysis

Date: Oct 13, 2015 (Originally published: Aug 27, 2015)

Author/s: Dr. Victor Sojo , Professor Robert Wood , Anna Genat

Research Fields: Diversity & Inclusion

esearch Topics: Gender Equality , Resilience , Sexual Harassment

We report a meta-analytic review of studies examining the relations among harmful workplace experiences and women’s occupational well-being. Based on previous research, a classification of harmful workplace experiences affecting women is proposed and then used in the analysis of 88 studies with 93 independent samples, containing 73,877 working women. We compare the associations of different harmful workplace experiences and job stressors with women’s work attitudes and health. Random effects meta-analysis and path analysis showed that more intense yet less frequent harmful experiences (e.g., sexual coercion, unwanted sexual attention) and less intense but more frequent harmful experiences (e.g., sexist organizational climate, gender harassment) had similar negative effects on women’s well-being. Harmful workplace experiences were independent from and as negative as job stressors in their impact on women’s occupational well-being. The power imbalance between the target and the perpetrator appeared as a potential factor to explain the type and impact of harmful workplace experiences affecting women’s occupational well-being. In the discussion, we identify several gaps in the literature, suggest directions for future research, and suggest organizational policy changes and interventions that could be effective at reducing the incidence of harmful workplace experiences.

Targets and Quotas for Women in Leadership

Date: Aug 05, 2014 (Originally published: May 01, 2012)

Author/s: Dr Jennifer Whelan , Professor Robert Wood

Research Fields: Diversity & Inclusion

Research Topics: Gender Equality , Targets and Quotas

A Global Review of Policy, Practice, and Psychological Research.

This study was one of the four core programs undertaken as part of the Gender Equality Project and was published in July 2012. It was completed while the CEL was located at Melbourne Business School, and as such some of the periphery information regarding the CEL (such as contact details) may have since changed.

Resilience: Women’s Fit, Functioning and Growth at Work: Indicators and Predictors

Date: Aug 04, 2014 (Originally published: Jul 01, 2012)

Author/s: Dr. Victor Sojo , Professor Robert Wood

Research Fields: Diversity & Inclusion

A meta-analysis of 103 studies, including 46 studies conducted in male-dominated work environments and 57 in general work environments, identified eight indicators across three levels of fit (work attitudes, sexism and sexual harassment), functioning (hiring and retention, health and performance) and growth (managerial level and compensation level). This study was one of the four core programs undertaken as part of the Gender Equality Project and was published in July 2012. It was completed while Professor Wood was located at Melbourne Business School, and as such some of the periphery information (such as contact details) have since changed.

A Review of the Evidence Regarding Work Life Policies

Date: Aug 07, 2014 (Originally published: Jul 01, 2013)

Author/s: Professor Robert Wood , Dr. Victor Sojo

Research Fields: Diversity & Inclusion

Research Topics: Flexible Work Arrangements , Gender Equality , Work-Life Policies

A review of research and government and industry reports regarding the impacts of work life polices such as flexible working arrangments on personal and individual outcomes.

This study was one of the four core programs undertaken as part of the Gender Equality Project and was published in July 2012. It was completed while the CEL was located at Melbourne Business School, and as such some of the periphery information regarding the CEL (such as contact details) may have since changed.

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